There were 2 main goals to this Research Paper. The first goal was to have the clearest possible explanation of the complex phenomenon of burnout. Thus we talked about the “origins” of burnout and provided a clear definition. We also saw that there were three types of factors that may influence the occurrence of a more or less severe burnout: sociological factors, organizational factors of the company and finally the factors regarding the individual. Then we saw what were the characteristics (or symptoms) that can be found in a person being in some level of burnout. We are talking about the levels of burnout because we can’t say this person is or isn’t in burnout. I introduced you to three questionnaires that can help measuring the level of burnout.
When a burnout is not detected early enough, the consequences can be dramatic. Firstly for the person who lives it and who’s “freaking out”. Then for his/her entourage and relatives but also for the company who is losing a good member. The detection and prevention are essential.
This brings us to the second objective of this Research Paper. As a coach, we have a vital role inthe detection ofa person’s burnout and in evaluating its severity. In case we find that our client is in the process of burnout, our main role will be in the intervention and in supporting our client. Our role will indeed be to raise awareness to our client that he/she is currently in such process. I have outlined to the 4 axes that are important to monitor for a in depth work with companies and their employees.
One last important thing is that when a person is in severe burnout, the help of a psychologist may be required.
I hope that through this research, you will understand the importance of our coaching role in the phenomenon of burnout.
Books / Studies
E. Demerouti, A. Bakker (2007) MEASUREMENT OF BURNOUT AND ENGAGEMENT,The Oldenburg Burnout Inventory : A good alternative to measure Burnout (and Engagement)Utrecht University
C. Vasey (2012), Burn-Out : le détecter et le prévenir, Jouvence, Genève.
L. Dewulf, G. Vangronsveld (2012), A l’aide mes batteries sont à plat, Editions Racine
Journal du Conseil, Mars 2013, Dossier : Burnout ou sydrôme d’épuisement professionnel
N. Chevrier (2009), Adaptation Québécoise de l’Oldenburg Burnout Inventory, Université Québec à Montréal
I. Hansez, J. De Cia, A. Angenot,
Y-A Thalman (2012), PETIT CAHIER D’EXERCICES DE GRATITUDE, Jouvence Editions, Genève
Kauffman, C. (2006). Positive psychology: The science at the heart of coaching. In D. R. Stober & A. M. Grant (Eds.), Evidence based coaching handbook: Putting best practices to work for your clients (pp. 219-253). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley
Appendix 1: Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI)
The MBI is the first measure questionnaire that was created. It refers to 3 characteristics:
- Personal accomplishment
In the questionnaire they are 9 questions concerning Exhaustion (E), 5 concerning Depersonalization (D) and 8 concerning Personal Accomplishment (PA).
It’s a 7 scale questionnaire:
1 = Never – 2 = Sometimes a year – 3 = Once a month – 4 = Sometimes a month – 5= Once a week 6 = Sometimes a week – 7 = Every day
- E. I feel emotionally drained from my work
- E. I feel used up at the end of the day
- E. I feel tired when I get up in the morning and have to face another day at work
- PA. I can easily understand how clients feel about things
- D. I feel I treat some clients as if they were impersonal objects.
- E. Working with people all day is a real strain for me
- PA. I deal effectively with the problems of clients
- E. I feel burned out from my work
- PA. I feel that I am positively influencing other peoples’ lives through my work
- D. I have become more callous toward people since I took this job
- D. I worry that this job is hardening me emotionally
- PA. I feel very energetic
- E. I feel frustrated by my job
- E. I feel that I am working too hard on my job
- D. I don’t really care what happens to some clients
- E. Working with people directly puts too much stress on me
- PA. I can easily create a relaxed atmosphere with clients
- PA. I feel exhilarated after working closely with clients
- PA. I have accomplished many worthwhile things in this job
- E. I feel like I am at the end of my tether
- PA. In my work, I deal with emotional problems very calmly
- D. I feel clients blame me for some of their problems
Appendix 2: Oldenburg Burnout Inventory (OLBI)
The OLBI refers to 2 characteristics:
In the questionnaire, there is a series of questions regarding exhaustion (8) and another set for the withdrawal (8). These issues are mixed in the questionnaire. In order to know which questions relate to one or another characteristic, there is an E for "Exhaustion" and D for "Disengagement". This distinction should not be seen by the respondent
It’s a 4 scale.
1 = Totally Disagree - 2 = Disagree - 3 = Agree - 4 = Totally Agree
Q1. D : I always find new and interesting aspects in my work
*Q2. E : There are days when I feel tired before I arrive at work
*Q3. D : It happens more and more often that I talk about my work in a negative way
*Q4. E : After work, I tend to need more time than in the past in order to relax and feel better
Q5. E : I can tolerate the pressure of my work very well
*Q6. D : Lately, I tend to think less at work and do my job almost mechanically
Q7. D : I find my work to be a positive challenge
*Q8. E : During my work, I often feel emotionally drained
*Q9. D : Over time, one can become disconnected from this type of work
Q10. E :After working, I have enough energy for my leisure activities
*Q11. D: Sometimes I feel sickened by my work tasks
*Q12. E : After my work, I usually feel worn out and weary
Q13. D : This is only type of work that I can imagine myself doing
Q14. E : Usually, I can manage the amount of my work well
Q15. D : I feel more and more engaged in my work
Q16. E : When I work, I usually feel energized
* Those questions are reversed items. It’s the strength of this questionnaire. Indeed, mixing positive and negative items and so to have a more neutral aspect. So you have to reverse the answers of those questions to have the right analyse.
Appendix 3: Hamburger Burnout Inventory (HBI)
The HBI has been created by Professor Mathias Burisch and it refers to 10 characteristics:
- Emotional exhaustion
Critical component of a burnout, it goes with the feeling of not being able to move forward, to be overworked and physically exhausted.
- Un-satisfaction of the performance
The person is un-satisfied with what he/she has done. He/she can no longer be proud of what he/she achieves. This can go along with the feeling that he/she must give more energy to his/her tasks than in the past, that he/she is less efficient. Or, that since a while, his/her job work has lost all interest.
The person will be less interested in the others than he/she uses to, preferring to keep his/her distances.
- Depressive reaction to stress
Even when facing minor events, frustration or stress, he/she will struggle to find his/her inner stability and confidence. He/she is no longer able to recover as he/she uses to in the past.
He/she feels unable to cope with problems, has the feeling of being trapped or sinking.
- Empty inside
He/she feels numb, as if he/she doesn’t really live anymore. He/she doesn’t feel emotions and feelings such as joy or pleasure anymore.
You're tired of your job, you can’t get to it without significant resistance
- Inability to relax
He/shecan’t no longertakethedistance todaily tasksand problemsto solve.Sleepsuffers.Persistentsleep disorder isan important warning signal
He/she will feel to impose him/herself inaccessible standards. He/she is his/her harshest critic.
- Aggressive reaction to stress
He/she feels to lose control of herself, even when facing minor frustrations, stressors or disappointments. He/she is irritable. This can be expressed against the others or biting the inside.
It’s a seven scale questionnaire.
1= not at all ; 7 = yes, definitely
- I have no more fundoing my job
- I tend tokeep mydistancesagainst other
- OccasionallyIfeelasense of helplessness
- I am often proud of my work
- Few things managed toraisemy enthusiasm
- I feelsuffocatedbymy work
- I can only behappy withmyselfwhenI’m doing my best
- It isnot uncommon to feel a feeling of emptiness inside me
- I ameasily irritatedeven forthingsof littleimportance
- I feel often worriedbefore goingto work
- Sometimes Ithink that myworkloadis too heavy.
- Many of my colleagues are indifferent to my person
- It isoften difficult to “disconnect”from work even after working hours
- SometimesI feeldiscouraged
- I have moredifficultiesthan others toovercome mydisappointment
- Much ofmystressislinked to the requirements I’m setting for myself
- Sometimes I feel like being in a situation whereI can neitherretreatnoradvance
- I am satisfied withmy professionalresults.
- Ieasilysupportemotional charges.
- Sometimes Ifeelaversion tomy work
- Sometimes I feel like I’m not living anymore.
- Iget angryeasilywhen thingsdo not progressas I would like
- I myself am self-imposing high requirements.
- I prefer to keep my contactswith othersimpersonal
- I tend totakethings wrong
- I tend tospend a lot ofenergy to overcomemy reluctanceto work
- Ifeel exhaustedandhelpless.
- Myprofessional problemsoften interferemy spare time
- I tendto perfectionism.
- Ican no longerconsiderseriously theconcerns of others
- I am oftenoverwhelmed whenI facemy problems
- Sometimesinsignificant detailsare enough toruin myday
- Sometimes Ihavethe feeling of beingdead.
- My performancesallow meto put myselfpositively in the light
- Oftenin the evening,I ponderin my mindtheevents of the day
- OftenI'm sick of my job.
- In some situations, I clearly feeloverloaded
- OftenI feelwinnowedand operated
- I tend toset myselfvery highprofessional goals
- I amin crisis andcan’tfind a solution