Full Range Leadership Model
Bass and Bass in The Bass Handbook of Leadership cited many concepts and principles for leadership with evidences dated back to the Egyptian time (2300 B.C.), Chinese from 600 B.C and Ancient Greek. Various aspects of leadership have been explored ranging from personalities, qualities and attributes to roles and responsibilities.
In 1978, James McGregor Burn categorized leadership as either transactional or transformational. Transactional leaders lead through social exchange by offering rewards for meeting the expectations and punishment (carrot and stick) for not meeting the requirements. In contrast, Transformational leaders stimulate and inspire followers to achieve more than they thought they could and at the same time develop their own leadership capacity.
In 1991, Avolio and Bass developed the Full Range Leadership Model based on Burn’s work by adding Laissez Faire to the bottom end of the continuum. They suggest that “Empirically, transformational leadership was more effective than transactional leadership, which was more effective than Nonleadership.”